African and Asian agamid lizards belong to the genus Uromastyx, and this species is also known as spiny-tailed lizards, Uromastyx, mastigures, and dabb lizards.
The majority of lizards in the genus Uromastyx are herbivorous, but they occasionally eat insects and other small animals, especially younger lizards.
They spend the majority of their waking hours lazing in the sun, hiding during the day in underground caverns, or waiting for a lucky break.
They prefer to settle in rocky, hilly areas with accessible flora and safe havens.
Learn all there is to know about uromastyx lizards in this care manual.
Overview of Uromastyx
|Spiny Tailed Lizard
|Uromastyx spp (many subspecies)
|10 to 36 inchesSnout to vent length of 5cm at birth
|Mostly leafy greens and vegetables
|Humidity & Temperature
|Daytime temperature: 85 degreesNight-time temperature: 75 degreesBasking area: 100-115 degreesHumidity: 35%
Spiny-tailed lizards from North Africa can grow to a maximum typical frame size of 40 to 43 cm and a body mass of 450 g.
The dorsally flattened bodies of the lizards are accompanied by gigantic tails that are protected by ringed spines.
The scales of adults, for example, are each a mottled shade of purple, orange, inexperienced, or yellow, even though the basic colour is grey, so humans may likewise display large-scale models in colour.
Human infants are often grey and brown in colour.
Scale colours reach their peak intensity at around four years old, around the same time that conductivity reaches sexual maturity.
Additionally, the colours change in relation to both pressure and body temperature.
It appears that immediate research on basal metabolic rate for this species has stopped. The Uromastyx microlepis, which has been cautiously associated, has been used to study the metabolic rate. The average basal metabolic charge is 41 mL/hour of oxygen at the highest temperature of the U. Acanthinura (104 degrees Fahrenheit) and for giant lizards with a mean frame mass.
Uromastyx acanthinura has multiple known subspecies, however they are hard to distinguish without geographical information.
Some authors disregard the existence of subspecies designations or treat several of them as distinct species.
Significant sexual dimorphism is not present in Uromastyx acanthinura.
In this species, all sexes have the potential to be foolish or colourful, yet it’s fairly uncommon for grown men to be more colourful than most girls.
Despite the fact that adult men tend to develop slightly faster than women before they reach adulthood, women and men are around the same length.
Males should have larger, darker femoral pores, a proportionately larger head, and significantly wider vent and tail base (where the hemipenes reside). These functions are all not constant.
Numerous species of Uromastyx may be quite stress-free. They all have the same large, spiky tails and blunt skull.
Many would also probably have similar intricate styles.
Examining the lizards’ colour patterns appears to be the most effective way to tell species apart.
The historical colour of Uromastyx acanthinura typically contains pink, orange, yellow, or green glitter.
Then, a number of elongated, curving patches that are darker brown or grey are placed on top of this. On this species’ neck, the spots are much more numerous.
considering that most unique species are not as colourful as U.
Acanthinura’s colours and fashions aim to facilitate identification.
Acanthinura occasionally has an essential grey or brown tint, therefore caution is helpful. This is made difficult by the U.
Size and weight
- 600 (high) g
- 21.15 (high) oz
- 450 g
- 15.86 oz
- 40 to 43 cm
- 15.75 to 16.93 in
Average basal metabolic rate
- 41 cm3.O2/g/hr
Due of their distinctive appearance and peaceful disposition, uro are well-known pets.
The name Uromastyx, which refers to the creature’s distinctive spiked tail, is derived from the Greek words ourá (tail) and mastigo (scourge).
Depending on the species, uros range in size from 10 to 30 inches, and with proper care, they can live up to 20 years in captivity.
The longevity of North African spiny-tailed lizards is not well documented. There is proof that captive lizards can survive in the wild for up to twenty years.
It is plausible to assume that these captured people were at least four or five years old when they were taken because they were sexually mature adults.
This species has been shown to contain parasites. Consequently, predation and parasitism are presumably
Origin and habitat
The habitats of Uromastyx acanthine are in arid areas, and it prefers rocky terrain since it can dig tunnels there. Its most frequent habitats in the desolate region are rocky or semi-rocky sandy places, but not frequently, open sandy wastelands.
This species frequently digs burrows in the ground or in steep, rocky cliffs.
This species can dig to create its burrows while living in less harsh environments.
It can still survive in rocky areas by using natural fractures and crevices in the rock face.
The sides of dry rivers, stabilised dunes, and excessive cliffs and banks are common habitats for this lizard.
Its habitat may be anywhere between 1,000 and 2000 metres above sea level. The habitat of U. Acanthinura can have temperatures as low as -7 degrees Celsius and as high as 60 degrees Celsius, yet this species is able to maintain a minimum body temperature of roughly 20 degrees C by seeking refuge in burrows.
The burrows typically maintain a temperate climate of between 20 and 25 degrees Celsius.
Although rain is uncommon in this area, humidity may also have a very wide range depending on how much falls.
As a result, Uromastyx acanthinura can withstand a wide range of ambient humidity as well as numerous variations within the available water.
Habitat Regions temperate terrestrial
Terrestrial Biomes desert or dune
- A thousand (low) m
- 3280.84 (low) feet
- 2000 m
- 6561.68 toes
Uromastyx conversation status
The current global trade in Uromastyx acanthinura is controlled by the use of cities, and all different Uromastyx species are listed in Appendix II.
A hit change rule is challenging to implement since there are so many available through underground markets.
The law is becoming increasingly challenging since this species is regularly misclassified.
Agricultural grazing on plants that Uromastyx frequently consumes, which increases competition for resources, is another concern to this species.
Its survival is generally threatened by additional essential factors that people introduce through the pet trade and trapping for food and medication.
Street mortality is a significant problem since lizards like to sun themselves on the roads because they can absorb heat.
This species is no longer evaluated by the IUCN. (An Assessment of the Worldwide Trade in Spiny-Tailed Lizards Uromastyx with a Focus at the Position of the eu Union, 2004, Uromastyx acanthinura, 2006; Highfield and Slimani, 2010)
Breeding and mating uromastyx
The female Uromastyx acanthinura has a tendency to become particularly aggressive toward burrowing invaders of both sexes at some point during the breeding season.
A man will frequently shake his head back and forth and execute push-up motions while courting a woman.
The guy will use his lips to hold the lady securely with the aid of either her facets or her neck as soon as he has subsequently come close enough to begin sex.
There is little knowledge of this lizard’s mating structures, thus more research is needed.
In April, Uromastyx acanthinura often mate, and one month following fertilisation, eggs are typically laid.
A typical take-keep size ranges from 6 to 23 eggs.
The newly fledged lizards weigh between 4 and 6 g and require from eight to twelve weeks to hatch from the eggs.
The young usually stay in their mother’s burrow for a few weeks to a few months at a time. At around 4 years old, juvenile Uromastyx acanthinura reaches sexual maturity.
Spiny-tailed lizards in North Africa most likely reproduce once a year.
From March through July, North African spiny-tailed lizards give birth.
Various numbers of children
6 through 23
Time range until independence
3 to 12 weeks
average age of sexual or reproductive maturity (female)
age typical for sexual or reproductive adulthood (male)
Post-oviposition parental care in North African spiny-tailed lizards includes the girl’s presence and nest defence. Beyond what is necessary to fertilise the eggs, males receive no parental assistance.
The eggs are buried inside the lady’s burrow, and it is believed that the guarding behaviour accounts for the females’ rising animosity during the mating season.
It’s uncertain if the mother stays vigilant over the neonates as they develop inside the burrow during their positioned up-hatching stage, but she protects the eggs at least for the eight to twelve weeks it takes for them to hatch.
Because Uromastyx acanthinura is a solitary and territorial species, younger lizards must create their own territories. As a result, they are almost definitely totally autonomous when they leave the burrow.
The mother will almost certainly continue excavating her own tunnel, as well.
Uromastyx role in the food chain.
This species helps neighbourhood populations since it serves as prey for several birds, snakes, wolves, and screen lizards.
Additionally, a variety of internal parasites such roundworms, pinworms, tapeworms, and protozoans are hosted by the uromastyx acanthinura.
In particular in people living in Algeria, the nematode species Foleyella candezei has been found in the liver or under the skin of these lizards.
Numerous mites and ticks are examples of external parasites. As a herbivore, U. Acanthinura may help disperse the seeds of the flowers it consumes. (Yildirimhan, et al., 2006; Bartlett, 2003)
This species’ burrowing habits may have an effect on the environment. It has been demonstrated that various organisms, in addition to insects and snakes, can live in the burrows of the related species U. Aegyptia.
Due to the fact that U. Acanthinura also burrows in areas that may be home to snakes and insects, the same benefit to unique organisms can coexist with this species’ burrows.
Additionally, desert soil frequently contains an excessive amount of salt. Burrows can bring soil with lower salt content fabric to the surface while they are being mined deep beneath. This may benefit flowers that are growing over burrows and have a lower salt tolerance. 2008 (Nemtzov)
Nematodes of the Commensal/Parasitic Species (Foleyella candezei)
Caring for pet uromastyx
The nature of this pet species will astound you.
The Uromastyx, a desert inhabitant, needs a lot of heat and UV light to stay warm as well as to regulate its appetite and digestive process.
In order to keep their pets happy and healthy, current and potential owners must make sure that they have access to enough supplemental lighting.
One to four times a day, your Uromastyx should urinate, passing solid, well-formed waste.
Daily faeces removal from tanks is required. A dietary issue may occur if your lizard is defecating less regularly or if the faeces are runny and improperly shaped. Keep an eye on this since it directly affects your lizard’s health.
The enclosure of Uromastyx
For newborns and juveniles, a 20-gallon tank (sometimes known as a “20-gallon breeder”) is sufficient.
A fully developed Uromastyx, on the other hand, will require far more room!
After they obtain their huge (3 to five years), a hundred-gallon terrarium is wanted.
Finally, your pet will enjoy as much room as you can offer! So, if you have the room, don’t be scared to go large.
20-gallon breeder tank (36′′ long, 18′′ broad, 18′′ deep) for infants and young animals under 6 inches in length 40-gallon tank/terrarium (36 inches long, 18 inches wide, and 18 inches deep) for Uromastyx 6–10 inches long.
A 98-gallon tank measuring 48 inches long, 24 inches wide, and 24 inches deep would be ideal for uromastyx, which are 11 to 15 inches long.
This species prefers glass terrariums because of their convenience, but a plexiglass enclosure will keep the temperature warm more effectively, which might be a very good want for this warm-loving animal:
Make sure your Uromastyx can spin around freely, regardless of the tank size you select.
Substrate for uromastyx enclosure.
Sand is widely acknowledged by owners to be the ideal medium for this type of lizard. It allows for their routine burrowing habits, primarily because they will feel intimidated.
Include a small container of sand in their enclosure for burrowing if you decide to use sand.
To prevent digestive problems in children, it is advised to use paper towels or shredded newspaper (in a region of sand).
Good substrate for uromastyx
First and foremost, consider paper towels. Paper towels are the most affordable and safest substrate for all lizards. Paper towel should absolutely be used as the substrate in the area of the tank designated for an adult uromastyx.
A newborn uromastyx, on the other hand, should be kept totally on paper towels until it is 3-4 months old. The tank may then be filled with burrowing substrate. This will assist in avoiding ingestion and impaction.
Clay sand and topsoil.
A suitable burrowing substrate is play sand combined with dirt for aeration. Before introducing burrowing substrate, make sure your uromastyx is at least 3-4 months old.
You will require soft play sand. Purchase cleaned play sand like this. Get calcium sand or extremely fine sand instead. The majority of uromastyx in the wild are located on rock outcrops rather than plain sand. Make a mixture of 40% sand and 60% dirt.
Instead of topsoil, you can use pure dirt devoid of plant food, or reptile soil like this. Buy soil without additions like perlite, vermiculite, or plant food. Sterilize any soil before using it by baking it for 35-45 minutes at 200-220 F. (93-105 C). Coconut coir (fibre) should be avoided since it is better suited for greater humidity-requiring reptiles.
Cover the substrate with huge granite boulders rather than little pebbles that can be eaten. Make careful to scoop out any excrement and urates on a regular basis, and replace the substrate completely once a month.
Ceramic or slate tiles are appropriate for use as the tank’s substrate, at least on one side. Choose unglazed tiles or a ceramic baking stone like this one.
The tile works best in the basking area or in the center, where it will hold heat effectively and assist raise basking temperatures.
Bad substrate for uromastyx
Hay is also not the greatest substrate for uromastyx. This is due to the fact that uromastyx can consume hay. Hay is also unsuitable for digging.
Moss alone holds too much moisture, which is bad for uromastyx. Uromastyx requires extremely low humidity levels (20-30%). When your uromastyx is shedding, insert some damp moss in the hide, but don’t use moss as the only substrate. You may add moss to the soil + sand substrate, but it must be dry.
Using seeds for substrate, like millet, is not a smart idea. This is due to your uromastyx filling up on seeds while disregarding other meals. This can lead to dehydration or obesity over time. Several times per week, provide different seeds as a snack.
Avoid using construction sand since it is highly gritty and might be polluted and sharp. If you opt to use sand, please only use play sand and non-silica sand that has been washed or that you have washed yourself. This is due to the fact that it includes a lot of dust, which can cause irritation or respiratory problems.
Millet has been widely utilised as a substrate in uromastyx aquariums. This is because it is loose and enables for digging, and it will not induce impaction if consumed. However, millet is not a good substrate for uromastyx since most people will consume millet and ignore other foods.
This might lead to dehydration if your uromastyx does not consume enough vegetables and greens. If your uromastyx consumes too much millet on top of other meals, it might lead to obesity. Offer millet as food only on rare occasions, not as a substrate.
Bark is not a suitable substrate for your uromastyx. When your uromastyx tries to burrow, the bark will prevent correct digging and may cause harm. Cypress mulch is widely used for other reptiles, however, it is not suitable for uromastyx since it does not retain heat efficiently.
Please avoid walnut shells as a substrate for your uromastyx. The shells are quite sharp and have the potential to harm your uromastyx. If your uromastyx unintentionally eats it, it can potentially cause internal organ harm.
Please do not use cat litter as a substrate for your uromastyx or any other reptile. Cat litter will clump and impede your uromastyx’s digestive passage. Furthermore, cat litter is dusty and might cause respiratory problems.
Decoration for the enclosure.
The uromastyx lizard needs many of places to hide.
To replicate their natural habitat, you must include branches and rock formations in their aquarium.
In order to survive, they must be able to burrow when threatened, thus providing them with a place to hide is crucial.
UVB lights are required for an Uromastyx cage for 10 to 12 hours each day. Without UVB, the body would have a harder time processing calcium, which could lead to a variety of serious health problems, such as metabolic bone disease.
Enclosures temperature and humidity.
As long as the ideal cage temperatures are met, ceramic heaters, underneath-tank heaters, or direct heat bulbs are all appropriate.
The tank temperature needs to be maintained within an 80 and 100 degree gradient during the day. To ensure that appropriate temperatures are maintained inside of their enclosure, it is necessary to have a few virtual temperatures.
To allow the enclosure to attain a nighttime temperature of roughly 75°F, heating systems must be switched off.
Additionally, their home must include a concentrated rock for basking.
That rock needs to reach temperatures of between 110 and 130 degrees Fahrenheit.
The fact that they will be cold-blooded makes this essential to their fitness.
While you should avoid misting your urethra right quickly, you can spritz your vegetables and plants as long as the humidity level stays below 35%.
They like hot weather during the day and cool weather at night because they are a wasteland species.
They spend a lot of time basking in the sun, just like many other kinds of reptiles. The body temperature of the uromastyx, a cold-blooded organism, is regulated by its surroundings.
The Uromastyx also requires extremely low humidity levels to imitate the desert-like conditions they may have evolved for in the wild. This is in addition to high temperatures. In the end, UVB supplemental light is important for his or her body’s ability to process calcium.
The Uromastyx will have a designated burrow in the wild.
They might emerge from their burrow at some time during the day to soak up the sun on rocky outcrops.
They will withdraw to their burrow throughout the night in order to avoid predators.
If it gets colder during the freezing months, they have been known to hibernate for two to five months. If resources are limited during the summer, they
may employ a behaviour similar to hibernation to conserve electricity until resources are again accessible.
Its container can have a UVB light installed on one side so that it can sunbathe there.
Food and diet of uromastyx
One of the most crucial aspects of keeping your uromastyx happy and healthy are knowing what to feed it.
This essay will teach you all you need to know about uromastyx nutrition, including what and how frequently to feed your uromastyx.
You will also discover a meal list and a chart, as well as information on the best foods to feed, which supplements to use, and how much to use.
Uromastyx consumes mostly vegetation in the wild and captivity, including vegetables, greens, seeds, legumes, and fruits/berries.
Feeder bugs and other high-protein meals should be severely reduced or removed owing to a long-term injury to internal organs.
Spiny-tailed lizards from North Africa typically eat plants.
They may, however, eat beetles and ants (Hymenoptera’s close relatives) (circle of relatives Tenebrionidae).
Younger lizards have a stronger preference for eating insects. It can eat up to a lot of fibrous wasteland plant life.
It is believed that other Uromastyx species use microbial digestion and a sophisticated digestive tract that maximises surface area to absorb the least amount of nutrients.
One of the main sources of food is the flora of the genus Chenopodium, which contains fat chickens (Chenopodium album) and other varieties of spinach.
One of the main sources of food is the flora of the genus Chenopodium, which contains fat chickens (Chenopodium album) and other varieties of spinach.
They also frequently consume plants of the salt-tolerant species Atriplex. Since the soil in deserts has a propensity to contain an excessive amount of salt, many plants often have a tendency to likewise have high salt concentrations in their leaves.
Main diet Frugivore, folivore, and herbivore
Food insects for animals
Fruit plants, seeds, grains, and leaves are examples of plant foods.
The majority of Uromastyx species no longer consume water from a bowl, instead getting their daily requirements from food.
Every day of the week, hatchlings should have access to a shallow jar of water or a Tupperware cover. New arrivals, sick people, and pregnant or growing-up women may also occasionally need a drink of water.
Make sure your uromastyx doesn’t suffocate in the water; some people get quite aroused in the water and breathe it into their lungs.
Breathing contamination (RI), which necessitates a vet visit to identify and treat, can be exacerbated by excessive humidity and even soaking (s).
Grooming of uromastyx
Grooming the uromastyx lizard is not required. This makes it an easy-to-handle lizard, uromastyx are found in extremely hot locations with little rainfall throughout the year.
Uromastyx acquires all of their water from the food they eat in the wild, and while you may provide some water once a week, it is not required. Bathing or misting your uromastyx should be avoided.
Cleaning of the enclosure
Substrates ought to be changed weekly. At the least as soon as a month, the entirety needs to be eliminated from the terrarium and scrubbed thoroughly with warm water and dependable/unscented soap.
Industrial terrarium cleaners can also be used as long as everything is rinsed very well afterward.
The temperament of uromastyx
This species frequently displays extreme aggression toward other members of its own species.
Closer to intruders, people zealously defend their area. Even siblings born from the same clutch of eggs would fight if kept together for an extended period of time in captivity. This species has a propensity to chew the rims of the opposing sides’ weapons during battle. White, colourless scar tissue in the one’s regions might disappear as a result. (grey, 2001)
The actions of Uromastyx’s buddies.
Uromastyx are often used, peaceful animals that can adapt to living alongside people. I’m glad uromastyxs search for our pastime when they feel affection.
Uromastyx with different intercourses need to get along well together, whereas those with identical intercourses want to live one after the other.
Juveniles may be housed collectively in small organizations.
At the same time as uromastyx are generally sincere with their care necessities, wild-stuck ones may be extra care-intensive and pose a challenge to human beings peculiar with being involved for reptiles.
Sluggish movements and gentle coping are usually crucial, even after your uromastyx and you come to be pals.
They might not be hostile toward people and be generally docile.
Safe handling should be done gradually. Before an Uromastyx is comfortable being treated, it may take more than a month of treatment.
To avoid startling or frightening your lizard, all activities should be gradual and controlled while handling it. They’ll be restrained by having their bottoms supported.
All lizards can chew, but if handled effectively and frequently, they tend to be docile.
Diseases and health problems.
Tail Rot: The cause of the condition known as “tail rot” may be keeping an Uromastyx in an overly wet environment or failing to dry them after a soak.
The Uromastyx’s spiny tail can develop bacterial or fungal infections that can grow in the moist tail crevices.
If not handled, the tail gets dark and occasionally falls off. In similar situations, consulting a qualified reptile veterinarian is frequently actually advantageous.
High Protein eating regimen: Extra protein may be harmful to Uromastyx because it puts an excessive strain on the liver and kidneys. The features of those organs will change over time as a result of consuming too much protein. Avoid consuming too many beans and other special legumes to keep the amount of protein from plant sources modest. Insects should no longer be a part of the Uromastyx diet for the benefit of the species. They are dangerous at best and ineffective at worst.
Metabolic Bone sickness:commonly referred to as MBD, is a term that may be used to describe a variety of problems involving the deterioration of bones or compromised tool properties as a result of an imbalance of calcium, phosphorus, or vitamin D3.
It is one of the most frequently observed health issues in many lizards and is frequently brought on by insufficient calcium levels in the diet or improper UVB lighting, which are essential for calcium absorption.
MBD symptoms range from mild (lethargy, loss of appetite) to severe (rubbery bones, spinal deformities, tremors, and twitching of the extremities). Any Uromastyx suspected of having MBD must receive veterinary care.
Cost of uromastyx
To purchase this lizard, you should budget between $100 and $200. The ideal enclosure, along with all the necessary accessories and lighting equipment, should cost between $250 and $500.
Searching for them has become much less difficult as they have grown in popularity in recent years. They can be purchased online from several puppy shops or breeders.
Make sure you properly inspect the lizard before purchasing. Make that your Uromastyx is healthy, active, and free of any visible abnormalities, such as skin lesions or blocked or crusty vents.
You have to also speak with the seller approximately how the lizard was raised and what it became fed.
While it is absolutely legal to possess a spiny-tailed lizard also known as uromastyx, it is crucial to examine your capacity to supply this animal with the required living circumstances for many years.
Owning a spiny-tail lizard requires a significant investment because these lizards may live for up to 30 years.
Pros and cons or uromastyx as a pet
- Clean and comparatively reasonably-priced to feed, no longer requiring huge quantities of bugs.
- Have wonderful personalities and are an incredibly intelligent species.
- They are resilient and might live in captivity for 15 years.
- Many keepers, especially novices, will appreciate the fact that uromastyx are completely vegetarian. Many owners dislike dealing with live bugs, gut-loading, and keeping insects in their homes. Your uromastyx will only require vegetables, greens, certain legumes, beans, and seeds for protein.
- They are diurnal, which means they are awake during the day and sleep throughout the night. They are also quite engaging and intriguing to observe because they are somewhat energetic and diurnal. They frequently prefer to climb high and gaze outside the tank to observe what’s going on. However, Uromastyx conceals well in small places and like digging.
- Require a rather big aquarium (40 gallons for adults).
- These are extremely high temperatures, which Uromastyx require because they originate from hot and dry environments. However, one 100-150w basking light in a big tank may easily produce such temps. Choose a hardwood tank over a glass tank since it will be much easier to achieve and sustain high temperatures.
- While most Uromastyx is quiet, rarely bite, and are frequently docile, some may take considerably longer to trust their owners. Some may be wary when you first meet them, and it may take some time and patience to gain their confidence.
- Many Uromastyx for sale may have been taken in the wild, and these animals may take longer to settle and may have parasites. Avoid obtaining a wild captured animal unless you are an experienced keeper.
There are several distinct hues of Uromastyx to choose from among its roughly 13 precise species. Finding the best match for your family may be a real experience.
The Uromastyx is an excellent beginner lizard and has recently gained popularity among many herpetologists.
The uromastyx makes a wonderful pet lizard.
It’s fun to watch them because of their charming looks, perceptive eyes, and fascinating routines. They don’t require any live feeder bugs after the first setup and are also rather easy to maintain.
They have specific management requirements (irregular tank temperatures, large tanks, and a green plant-based diet), but are ideal for almost any owner as long as great attention is paid to setting up and maintaining their habitat.
Bearded dragons are a medium-sized barren region lizards that could be an appropriate possibility for Uromastyx.
Yes, a Mali uromastyx can consume aloe Vera, but not in large quantities since this might result in watery stools. Offer this as a juicy treat on occasion; it does not need to be a regular part of your uromastyx’s diet.
Uromastyx Niger is smaller and thinner than other Uromastyx species. Their head-to-tail length ranges between 12 and 14 inches on average. When they reach adulthood, they weigh roughly 200 grams or perhaps more.
Yes, uromastyx can consume blackberries as part of their 5% fruit quota. Blackberries are strong in oxalates, having a Ca:P ratio of 1.3:1, thus used sparingly.
Uromastyx is an omnivores, which means they consume both plant and animal stuff. Despite being omnivores, uromastyx cannot digest substantial quantities of animal protein.