Leopard Gecko – A Complete Care Guide

Leopard Gecko

The leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius) is a ground-dwelling lizard endemic to rocky dry grassland and desert areas. The leopard gecko is now a popular pet in the US and the UK, and it is frequently considered to be the first domesticated species of lizard due to widespread captive-breeding. Mainly two leopard geckos, both diurnal, were discovered sleeping in the Banke Region of western Nepal’s Kamdi Biological Corridor. 

Banke National Park in Nepal and Suhelwa Wildlife Sanctuary in Uttar Pradesh, India are connected by this corridor. The desert ecosystems of Afghanistan, northwestern India, Iran and Pakistan have been found to be home to these reclusive, floor geckos. In contrast to other lizards, they require less maintenance. leopard gecko body language is amazing and has upbeat spirits, that is fun to watch.

Leopard geckos are an ideal buy for first-time reptile owners. Conservation is generally simple, handling is safe, and breeding is easy, making them tempting pets as reptiles.

Common name: 

Leopard Gecko

Scientific Classification:

KingdomAnimalia
PhylumChordata
ClassReptilia
OrderSquamata
FamilyEublepharidae
GenusEublepharis
SpeciesE.macularis

Care level:

Easy 

Leopard Gecko Natural Habitat: 

Leopard geckos are indigenous to the Middle East. They can be found in rocky, arid grassland, or barren deserts. Despite the fact that their environment is hot and dry, moisture is still accessible in their tanks, allowing them to drain and keeping humidity high for egg incubation. Realistic leopard gecko habitat needs to have dry environments with limited grass and soil, as well as rocky terrain with holes for protection. They avoid locations with sand as the major substrate.

Appearance:

There are a few characteristics that leap to mind when considering what distinguishes a gecko from a lizard. Geckos, firstly, don’t have adhesive toe pads that allow them to climb.

Secondly, they lack eyelids and must lick their eyes to clean them up. They also have vocal-cords, which enable them to howl and create sounds. Leopard geckos are often yellow, white, and black-dotted. Creatures are striped at first, then progressively shift to a spotted look.

There are a number of brightly colored and textured morphs/variants. Certain hues are more desirable and precious, although the common wild-type or normal color is the most easily accessible and economical. Baby Leopard Geckos may be wary, but they are quickly domesticated. They, like other geckos, prefer a warmer hideout and a colder hide space. A healthy gecko has bright eyes wide open and a robust tail. When they are resting, their tummy must only come into contact with the floor. 

Attributes and Characteristics: 

There are some special features of leopard geckos discussed below. These reptiles are made for arid desert because they are nocturnal.

  •     Eyes:

The eyes of a leopard gecko are the most distinguishing feature of the species. Their eyes give them a lovely and fuzzy appearance. The only greatest pet reptile with distinct outer ears and eyelids. These also have the ability to sleep with one eye-open. The eyes of geckos are 350 times more sensitive to sunlight than the eyes of humans. Leopard geckos use their light-sensitive eyes to help them measure the time of day and maintain a healthy biological-cycle. It also allows them to see effectively in dim light, giving their eyes an important element of their overall health. Leopard geckos are among the few reptiles having functional lids that can really close.    

  • Teeth

Leopard geckos are “polyphyodont”, meaning they can replace all 100 of their teeth periodically for 3 to 4 months. Leopard geckos have little strong jaws inside their mouth to cleave insects. Their teeth are exceedingly little and non-threatening from a human standpoint. Their unintentional biting feels more like a pinch than a bite.

  • Tail 

A large tail extends from the body’s ends that can be utilized to store food. The tail will expand because there is plenty of food, but when there isn’t enough food, it shrinks to its normal size as the food is metabolized. When they are frightened, they may drop their tail to deter predators. It is not as easy for geckos as it is for other animals. They can get rid of their tail twice, but the one that develops in its stead has an uneven form and patterns.

  •    Toes

Gecko’s incredible toes allow them to stick to almost any surface excluding the Titanium. Unlike some of the other geckos, but as with most “Eublepharidae”, their toes lack bonding lamellae (a thin layer, coating, or plate of tissue, most commonly found in bone), preventing them from climbing flat walls and ceilings.

How big do leopard geckos get?

Leopard geckos are normally three to four inches long when they are born and grow to be 15 to 25 cm long. Even if it weighs up to 2.5 grams, it is still considered a newborn. For the first ten months of their lives, young adolescent geckos weigh between three and thirty grams. A leopard gecko can reach adulthood at the age of 1 year and weigh up to 120 grams. Female geckos grow to be seven to eight inches long as adults. Male geckos, on either hand, can reach a length of 8–10 inches. These reptiles can mature for 2.5 year from conception to one and a 1/2 years, when they achieve full capacity as a full frowning leopard gecko.

Leopard Gecko Weight Chart | Leopard Gecko Size Chart

AgeWeightBody Length
Hatchling2-5 g3”-4”
1 month15-20 g4”
2 months18-30 g5”
6 months25-60 g5”-6”
18 months40-80 g8”-11” 

Life expectancy of a leopard gecko: 

20 or more years in captivity with proper care

A leopard gecko may survive in isolation for almost 20 years, so having one is a major commitment. They wish to live alone, but if handled gently, they may learn to be accustomed to it. They may be kept alive for a long time if properly cared for. Leopard geckos have a longer lifespan than certain reptiles. You may anticipate the gecko to last for six to ten years typically, but many male leopard geckos have been known to live for more than 25 years. They have the ability to injure or even kill each other. Whether you have two males, you need to keep them in separate containers. If you have a male and a female, you must keep them together unless you want them to breed.

Leopard gecko Morphs

Leopard gecko Morphs
Image credit : strictlyreptiles

A “leopard gecko morph” is just a morphological variation in colouring, patterning, or other physical characteristics. Mutations that occur are responsible for some morphs. However, breeding has resulted in the creation of a vast (and increasing) amount of new leopard gecko morphs. Previously, there’s just one type of Leopard Gecko: wild type leopard gecko. But now they have over 100 distinct morphs. Among the most significant are listed here:

Normal & High Yellows:

This is a standard yellow leopard gecko with dark spots. They will be affordable and widely available in stores. Never spend a great deal for a Normal morph because they’re relatively inexpensive. They appeared to be a High Yellow since there were no more than 100 unique colour variations. Nobody else had a Normal or High Yellow morph of the lizard. High Yellow has more yellow and half the number spots than Normal, and it may be merged with some other morph.

Hypo/Hyper Melanistic Morphs:

(change the form/shape or color of the lizard’s eyes)

A leopard gecko ought to have ten or even less spots all over its body to be classified as a Hypo. They are termed Super Hypo when they have no markings on their body of any kind. A Hyper-Melanistic leopard-gecko is a deep-colored that is not black. The morph does contain more melanin than the lighter-colored variants. It will still have dots and patterns, but it will be considerably darker than Normal or Wild types.

Albinos:

(lighter in color and typically lack an enzyme)

The Albino Leopard Gecko’s albino colour is caused by insufficient melatonin. They are interesting geckos to have as pets. It does, however, need a bit more care than a typical creature. In reality, surviving and maintaining good health also need a specialised care routine.

Blizzards:

(patternless and display solid colors)

This morph of leopard gecko lacks markings and looks more like the Murphy Patternless. These could be completely yellow, white, or even purple, with the darker hues generally referred to as “Midnight Blizzards”. Blizzards are among 3 morphs that have either eclipsed or completely black eyes.

Striped:

(have different types of stripes running the length of their back)

The body of a Stripe Leopard Gecko is patterned lengthwise from head to tail. The striped morph has a black stripe running along the entire of its body. This morph’s aesthetic look makes it very coveted, so they may be quite pricey.

Rarest leopard gecko color:

The rarest leopard gecko color is ‘Black Night’ and also, Midnight leopard gecko. A captive-bred leopard gecko color is one that is completely black. This morph is among the most uncommon in captivity. They are available in solid black with light-skinned (or white) bellies and are considered the rarest of all the Leopard Gecko Morphs.

Difference between male and female: 

A Juvenile leopard gecko’s sexual preference is hard to determine. When they are ready to mate, you can guess the gender. This can be when they are at least six months old or unless at least 5 or 6 inches long. There have been some distinctions between males and females that you should be aware of. Male leopard geckos grow exponentially more than female leopard geckos. On average, males weigh more than female leopard geckos. Average leopard gecko weight is between 50-80 grams.

There are some male leopard geckos that are more confrontational. In contrast, female leopard geckos tend to be more docile. In addition, a male leopard gecko has a larger head than a female. Males may also survive better lives than females. A female leopard gecko may live for 6 to 10 years, whereas a male leopard gecko may live for ten to twenty years.

 Attribute Adult Males Adult Females
 Average size 8-11 inches 9 inches
 Life span 10 to 20 years 5 to 10 years
 Average weight 60-80 grams 50-70 grams
 Minimum Length 4 inches 4 inches

Environment and Tank setup of Leopard Gecko

Leopard Gecko Tank Setup
Image credit : https://i.ytimg.com/vi/JGp6-Z6nQZI/maxresdefault.jpg

How big does a tank have to be for a leopard gecko?

20 gallons. A baby leopard gecko requires a minimum of 10 gallons of tank space. Adult Leopard Geckos need at least a 20-gallon long tank. A 20-gallon tank size also provides enough space for a Gecko to roam and explore

you add, the tank size needs to be increased by Five gallons (19 liters) on average:

  • For one leopard gecko it’s Ten gallons (38 litres)
  • If two it’s Fifteen gallons (57 litres)
  • For three it’s Twenty gallons (76 litres)

Ground geckos enjoy long, deep aquariums. Prevent tanks that are too tall or too short, like those used for geckos or other species living in trees.

Tank Ventilation:

An aquarium’s circulation might be passive, dynamic, or a mixture of both. The most popular type of passive airflow is a mesh that spans the full lid, a portion of the cover, or some other top area of the tank.

Tank Access:

When it comes to filling tanks, there are two most common ways. One method is to look down through a lid above it; this is more popular with tiny terracotta-pots. The second approach is from front, where the terrarium’s front glass moves to the side.

Temperature:

Leopard geckos are “heterotrophs”, which means their body temp is affected by their environment. That’s why you’ll need to keep temperatures in their tank reasonably consistent, as well as a temperature difference – a warm and cold section within the habitat. When they need more heat, Leos will head to their hotspots, and when they get too hot, they will move to the other part to cool down. During daytime geckos prefer temperatures of 75 – 85°F (24 -29°C), with the basking region reaching 90°F (32°C). The temp should be in the 70s (21°C) at night if at all feasible.

There still are various ways to keep your leos warm by using:

  • Ceramic heaters
  • Suitable lights
  • Heating pads

Substrate:

Leos spend plenty of time engaging with the floor in their tank because they are floor lizards. Fish will jump upon that, hunt and dine on it, or even lay her eggs on it. While “geckos came from dunes,” it’s not as easy as placing sand in your tank — in fact, leos don’t come from sandy desert areas, and sand is the worst substrate you could give your leopard gecko! Even allegedly digested calcium sand falls under this category.

Hence it is critical to select your substrate with care!

The quick list of best and worst leopard gecko substrates is as follows:

  • Good and natural substrates: large river pebbles, stone slate and excavator clay.
  • Good, but not-so-natural substrates: ceramic tiles, paper towels, newspaper and reptile carpet.
  • Bad substrates: walnut shells, Sand,quartz and calcium sand.
  • Debated substrate: eco earth/coconut fiber.

Tank Covers and Lids:

A wire/mesh lid will be expected to cover your tank. The covering will keep unwanted pets, insects, and children-out of your pet’s tank whilst still supporting the lights.

Should not use a solid lid glass, plastic, or other material. The tank’s lid must be a display cover that allows fresh air in / out. The heat and pressure in the tank will rise to dangerously high levels if a hard tank lid is used.

Lightning

Leopard geckos are sturdy and gentle geckos that make excellent first pets. Leopard Geckos have become more fascinating creatures over the years since they do not require a lot of room or significant lighting as they are mainly active at night. To replicate sunshine, the leopard gecko reptile needs blazing illumination and heat out of that source. In the summer, they require around 14 hours of sunlight every day. In the winter, the lizard needs around 12 hours of daylight. A small quantity of light (about 5% of total light) can go a long way toward keeping leopard geckos healthier and it may lessen the danger of metabolic bone disease.

  • Daytime Lights:

Even though your leopard gecko will be resting for the majority of the day, he then she will require heat and light. Despite the fact that leopard geckos are diurnal, you must try to replicate the light cycle in their natural habitat.

  • Basking Light Leopard Gecko

It makes little difference what kind of daylight you utilize. Leopard geckos, unlike other reptiles, are nocturnal and do not sunbathe in the sun. It’s crucial, though, to keep your tank at the right temperature. You can choose any regular bulb as a source of light when you can maintain the right surface temperatures in the aquarium or by plate heaters.

  • Nighttime Lights:

Furthermore, as leopard geckos are diurnal, you should avoid using any string lights, night – time when they are most active. They require a certain level of heat, so if your tank can’t keep a consistent temp with an under tank heater, you’ll need to invest in a thermal infrared lamp to have at nighttime. These lights offer heat to your leopard gecko at nighttime and are specifically suited for creatures that are active at night because the hue of the light does not impart any impact to leopard geckos.

Tank decoration:

Decorating your leopard gecko aquarium is about more than wasting money and/or making your gecko’s habitat appear nicer. As they can be decorative, they also improve a reptile’s standard of living by simulating its natural surroundings and offering cerebral stimulation. Environment stimulation is something that the greatest zoo does all the time. Current reptile husbandry professionals are striving to dispel the myth that reptiles are simple creatures who don’t require “toys” or décor above their caretakers’ fancy.

  • Hides/Caves:

A leopard gecko requires two hides: one that is warm and moist, and another that is chilly and dry. However, don’t limit oneself to just two hides. Give more if possible, such as a warm, dry hide. Leopard geckos enjoy having choices.

  • Plants: 

There aren’t many plants in leopard geckos’ natural habitat, however if you want to add some to the aesthetics, that’s wonderful! Before employing artificial plants, make sure they’re clean. Whatever live plants you use ought to be harmless & suitable to a dry atmosphere so you shouldn’t have to water them too frequently.

  • Rocks:

Rocks are one of the effective ways to enhance the look of the fence. Leopard geckos enjoy ascending, and piling slate stones with inch-two inch gaps between them mimics the fissures in which they conceal and ascend in their natural habitat.

  • Water bowl:

Water bowls are necessary in geckos enclosures since they drink freely from them. The liquid should improve the supply or whenever it becomes dirty, and should be deep enough so that the gecko does not drown by accident.

  • Backdrop:

Putting a realistic backdrop from an all container can make it more appealing. As he can’t see while much as, it also makes the gecko feel safe in his surroundings.

  Humidity:

Since these lizards are arid reptiles, they do not require a highly humid habitat. If the temperature is too moderate (just under 20%), the gecko may have difficulty in shedding. Maintain a humidity and temperature of an average of 30% to 40%, which itself is equivalent to the relative humidity in your house. To keep the process sterile, utilize a standard screen top in conjunction with a heating element. Cleanse the container for urates, excrement, or waste. Strip all substrate every ninety days to wipe and sanitize the tank. Get a hygrometer/humidity indicator for the tank to monitor the moisture levels.

–          Vivarium Setup

For a vivarium setup, you will need: 

  1. A vivarium
  2. The heat mat
  3. The basking lamp
  4. UV light
  5. Heat lamp that emits infrared light
  6. Hygrometer
  7. Thermometer
  8. Substrate 
  9. And some decorations to create hiding spots.

–          Appropriate Substrate

The soil you select must have to be non-abrasive to the delicate skin of the Leopard Gecko. It should be simple to clean and try replacing, and should not emit any debris. Contaminated/wrong substrates can induce disease, decreased lung function, and hazardous responses.

–          Items

You should put some leopard geckos stuff in the tank to make things appear more natural. These items could include artificial plants, rocks, woods, and logs that would actually make the environment more natural. Plants, both live and artificial, can be employed to create extra hideouts as well as a more natural appearance.

–          Vivarium Temperature 

Leopard geckos cannot generate their own body core temperature; hence they require external heat sources. In the daytime, the colder side of the vivarium should be kept at roughly 23-27 degrees Celsius. The vivarium’s warm spot (or basking region) must be between 29 and 33 degrees Celsius.

–          Housing the Leopard Gecko

A large tank of approximately 20-25 gallons can house two to more leopard geckos, but only one male should be kept per habitat, and a larger tank is recommended. If you do want to deal with reproduction, keep males and females together only. Old fish aquariums that no longer contain water are also ideal for leopard geckos. Half logs can be used for concealing and climbing. Caverns for commercial reptiles and basic caves for reptiles.

Clean Water

It is vitally important to ensure leopard geckos with clean water on a daily basis. Access to clean water and food will keep them safe since there is always the risk of gecko drowning. To feed them an insect, avoid using deep basins or containers.

Diet: 

(Insectivore)

Leopard geckos eat insects. They are voracious feeders that consume a wide range of species. In captivity, on special times, you might be able to feed a pinky mouse to an adult gecko and even newly hatched leopard geckos if presented with the opportunity. Amusingly, captive leopard gecko’s breeders indicate that well-fed leopard geckos will not consume their young and that flesh-eating behavior appears to occur primarily in poorly nourished geckos.

–          Feeding guide

When feeding your leopard gecko, keep in mind that fresh, clean, chlorine-free water should be accessible at all times. Feed once a day. Always keep a small bowl of freshwater nearby to your leopard gecko.

–          Use of Supplements

Scatter a calcium supplement on gecko’s food every day, and a multivitamin tablet once or twice a week.

–          Safe Insects for Leopard Geckos

Feeding a range of live-crickets, waxworms, and mealworms in moderation. You may train your gecko in an empty container to ensure that he does not consume any material.

–          Adult Feeding Schedule

Adults only require the calcium/vitamin supplement in every feeding. Adult geckos should be served every day if they are healthy. They should be fed 6-7 big insects or mealworms twice a week. When using vitamins like wax worms, 3-5 worms should always be provided to Leopard Geckos three times each week.

–          Baby Feeding Schedule

Every day, feed 5-7 little crickets/mealworms to baby leopard Geckos till they reach around 4 inches in length. Larger food should always be fed every day until they hit maximum growth, which should take approximately 10-12 months.

Leopard Gecko Tankmates

Let’s admit it: it’s enticing to keep your leopard gecko alongside other animals, even if they’re perfectly fine on their own. Once the correct conditions occur, a bearded dragon, lizard, turtles, chelonians, and iguana can happily coexist with your leopard gecko. The following are the requirements for introducing more creatures to your leopard gecko tank:

  • Turtles:

They are loving creatures. These can readily adapt to the very same circumstances like your leopard gecko.

  • Lizards:

Lizards are sociable animals. They become more mobile in their search for warmth. It’s not uncommon to observe a lizard sunbathing with its belly near the sun. As soon as your leopard gecko’s temperature needs are met, lizards can easily live together with a leopard gecko. Unless you want to get one as a leopard gecko buddy, you must put a cave-like refuge in the vegetation.

  • Iguana:

Iguanas are inherently solitary creatures. These do, nevertheless, live in groups in the wild, which is a major pointer that they will get along with the leopard gecko.

  • Bearded dragon

Bearded dragons make excellent pets since they are placid. They are inquisitive and interesting animals.

Gecko predators:

  • Snake 
  • Birds 
  • Spiders 

Behavior and Temperament: 

Community:

When shedding, leopard geckos will consume their skin. Handling should be kept to a minimum because it might frighten them out. Never grasp a leopard gecko by the tail because they may chuck it. Even as adolescents, Leopard Geckos are often receptive to modest degrees of handling and engagement. Leopard Geckos should be treated with extreme caution, making sure not to harm or damage the species. Most grown Leopard Geckos can calm down by becoming fairly placid and easy to control.

Geckos converse through their tails. Keep a close eye out for tail-waving whether you have more than 1 leopard gecko in a cage or more. It’s a sluggish, rear movement. The gecko frequently lifts it as well. This indicates that a leopard gecko is feeling intimidated and is prone to attack, so distance both of them as soon as possible.

Leopard geckos can only make buzzing sounds. They have vocal chords and can make noises that can be characterized as chirps, clicks, or barks. They use their vocalizations to attract mates, relay social signals to other geckos, exhibit distress, and warn predators away.

Handling the creature, getting them out for materials and activities outside their tank, and building up a healthy ecosystem can help build relationships between a leopard gecko and its caretaker.

–          Breeding behavior

Leopard geckos may become more hyperactive, even hostile, during the mating season. Males look out for more leopard geckos as they search for a mate. Leopard gecko’s frequent and typical breeding behaviors include tail wiggling, making noises, wandering around and chasing a female, and attempting to reach her.

Males grow competitive and may battle with other males. Sometimes females will grow territorial with one another and attempt to assert authority.

In most groups, there is an authoritative female, and few females can reject another female. As a result, connecting females to each other at an early age, before breeding age, is indeed a fine decision.

–          Reasoning of the behavior

They are about the only reptile species that enjoy being touched, but you must give it time before you could even handle it. A leopard gecko will attempt to conceal and climb the barrier to break free if the temperature exceeds. Leopard geckos can become violent during the reproductive cycle.

Leopard geckos spend most of their time in the hideout. There can be a few reasons for this behavior. 

  • Your leopard gecko is not yet at ease in its habitat.
  • The warmth inside the tank may have been too high, the light may be too dazzling, and the moisture may be too low/high.
  • Your leopard gecko might well be ill. It may be parasite-infected or have other problems.

Shedding of leopard gecko

Leopard geckos shedding occurs every 4 to 8 weeks as adults. Activities in greying of their complexion precedes this process. Increase the dampness in the tank after you notice this, and the procedure should be completed in 24 to 48 hours. More information and strategies to avoid damage from shed will be provided in the coming weeks.

There is more information and ways to prevent injury from shedding such as How Long Does It Take Your Leopard Gecko To Shed?How to take care of a baby leopard gecko? Signs of shedding and what to do when you see them, Injury as a result of poor shedding, How long can a Leopard gecko go without heat? Why do leopard geckos need heat? etc.

Leopard Gecko Breeding Guide

Leopard geckos are effortless to reproduce, but it appears to require more than just pairing genders and allowing things to happen naturally. Leopard geckos reproduce under specific parameters, so make sure you own the proper setup and atmosphere. Here’s a step-by-step instruction to breeding leopard geckos.

Step 1: Breeding setup

For a peaceful breeding environment, you will need these:

  1. Enough Room to Conceal them.
  2. An egg box.
  3. An incubator box.
  4. Housing for hatchlings.

Step 2: Give them an Optimal Breeding temperature

The degree to which the eggs are stored affects the gecko’s gender. This is known as temperature-dependent sex determination (TDSD). Temperature changes exceeding 80 degrees Fahrenheit will result in a majority of females. Increased temperature, about 90 degrees Fahrenheit, will birth primarily males. Ambient temperature in the mid-80s will bring in a mix of sexes.

Step 3: Keep in mind, is that Breeding Season?

The mating season for leopard geckos commences in January or early February and can last until September. Females can breed and eggs are laid repeatedly throughout the course of a season.

The timespan for breeding: 

From inception to delivery, a healthy mating spans about two to three minutes.  

Step 4: Egg laying and incubation

Female leopard geckos deliver their eggs behind rocks or under trunks in the habitat. The eggs are still not solid when they emerge from the female and could use some time to build their outer cover. The eggs are subsequently incubated for 6 to 10 weeks, based on environmental conditions such as temperature. Female leopard geckos will lay a clutch periodically 15 to 22 days for 4 to 5 months. Female leopard geckos may produce one or more eggs in their very first breeding season, yielding 8-10 eggs in their first mating year.

Step 5: Post Breeding Care of Females

Be reluctant to grant the females calcium supplements and dust their feeding bugs. Breeding season may be strenuous, and the supplementary calcium will keep the females robust. During the mating season, female geckos consume very little. This is pretty standard. When they develop an appetite, it’s best to keep an eye over them and provide adequate food to replenish the fat accumulated in their tails.

Breeding Is Easy Or Hard?

It is relatively simpler to breed them in captivity than in the wild.

Health Problems and Disease

It might be difficult to spot symptoms of disease in a leopard gecko. It is because many issues take a long time to manifest, making it difficult for novice enthusiasts to detect them. Keep an eye on your leopard gecko’s behaviour to see if he or she is suffering from a sickness.

Leopard geckos are tough organisms that can adapt to a variety of environments, although they can get sick. Leopard geckos become ill most of the time as a result of poor maintenance.

Parasites

Some of the most common symptoms are: tail rot and sticky tail, MBD and mouth rot.

  • Helminths

Oxyurids (pinworms) are frequently seen in small numbers in the faeces of leopard geckos and are seldom dangerous. They should only be addressed if clinical symptoms or a large number of them are present. Diarrhea, weight loss, anorexia, and stunted development are among the symptoms of high oxyurid loading. A rise in the oxyurid number may be a sign of other health issues.

  • Cryptosporidiosis:

In leopard geckos, “Cryptosporidium saurophilum” has now been linked to intestinal tract epithelial hypertrophy. Inability to progress, diarrhea, and, in most cases, dramatic weight loss are clinical symptoms. Condition is diagnosed by demonstrating the organism on an acid-fast stain of feces/a gastric flush/by using intestinal histology. Because of the chronic development and high transmission potential, clinically afflicted geckos should always be euthanized. Cryptosporidium in reptiles have not been shown to be zoonotic.

Metabolic bone disease:

MBD is a common condition in many confined reptiles. Failure to meet the criteria for proper calcium metabolism results in bone demineralization. MBD is a prevalent ailment in leopard geckos because they are typically housed in conditions that do not include UV illumination, vitamin and calcium supplements, or enough warmth.

Pathological breakage, twisted or crooked long bones, difficulty to feed owing to mandibular softness and discomfort, neurological abnormalities, or persistent wasting are among indications of geckos.

Autotomy:

Rough treatment, primarily of the tail, as well as stressful experiences or damage from a cage partner or other species, can all trigger autotomy. The residual stump may flow little but will seem like an infected sore.

Leopard geckos can self-amputate their tails when attacked. Lines of weak spots in the vertebrae cleave with strenuous muscular activity, causing the tail to detach from the body. Because of the continued muscle contractions, the fallen tail continues to twitch, distracting the attacker and enabling the gecko to flee.

Egg binding:

In this species, pre-ovulatory stiffness is infrequent. Retention of produced eggs is more prevalent owing to a lack of an acceptable hatching place or a failure of the oviduct to constrict due to calcium insufficiency. Geckos frequently show signs of a swollen coelom, indiscriminate digging, twitching, or lethargy. The huge eggs can frequently be seen through the ventral coelomic wall.

This rarely occurs if the gecko is folded and feeble. Moisture therapy, analgesia, and calcium administration are required in these complex conditions.

Hemipene infections:

Hemipene infections can be caused by inadequate sanitation, mental anguish from no receptive females, and nutrient deficiencies. These can progress to infections, which are characterized by a large erythematous tail base, fatigue, anorexia, and straining. Analgesia and antibiotic medication should be started, and the inspissated purulent material should be removed under surgery. Because the renal veins reach the cloaca independently, hemipenes removal can be performed without compromising the lower urinary tract.

Dysecdysis:

The inability of leopard geckos to shed regularly is a focal issue. Juveniles shed up to every 10 days throughout rapid development stages, whereas grownups shed every 6 weeks.

When dysecdysis develops, skin shedding appears to be retained on the toes, causing skin to dehydrate, contract, and tighten, eventually leading to avascular necrosis and toe amputation if remain unattended.

Retained skin is removed by bathing the afflicted region in lukewarm water and pat pulling loose chunks away using moist cotton buds and atraumatic forceps.

Ten Common Diseases in Leopard Geckos:

Leopard geckos are susceptible to a number of ailments, the most frequent of which are listed here.

  • Chronic Malnutrition
  •  Hypovitaminosis A
  • Nutritional Secondary Hyperparathyroidism
  • Phalangeal Dysecdysis
  • Abscesses
  • Diarrhea
  • Ocular Problems
  • Stomatitis
  • Egg Retention
  • Intestinal Impactions
  1. Chronic Malnutrition:

Leopard geckos are prone to malnutrition. Merely stated, crickets and mealworms that have not been supplemented are insufficient. Leopard geckos cover a wide range of insects that are provided as a nutrient diet and coated with calcium before feeding. Hepatic lipidosis is a common side effect of a poor diet. Lengthy stomach tube or feed tube assistance is recommended until the geckois is willing to eat on its own, which takes about six to eight weeks.

  1. Hypovitaminosis A:

Due to an unsuitable diet and inadequate supplements, this is a typical condition in leopard geckos. It causes hemipenal casts to remain in place, as well as shed issues and vision impairments.

  1. Nutritional Secondary Hyperparathyroidism:

Regrettably, leopard geckos fed crickets and mealworms remain in this manner. Stuck shedding, anorexia, lethargy, unwillingness to move, malformed limbs, soft mandible and maxilla, kyphoscoliosis, and difficulty to lift their body off the floor are some of the clinical indications. Because treatment usually takes some months, be sure the family is really committed.

  1. Phalangeal Dysecdysis:

This one is unusual in leopard geckos and is caused by much shedding remaining just on fingers due to low dampness. As trapped shedding accumulates, flow of blood is restricted, and avascular necrosis ensues. By supplying a moist hide/nest box, this issue can be readily prevented. The toes may need to be severed under local or total anaesthesia if the sheds are not eliminated after soaking in damp paper towels. Antibiotics, including oral and local, are recommended.

  1. Abscesses:

Enormous subcutaneous abscesses distal to and even including the periocular tissue are common in leopard geckos. Bandaging and exfoliation under anaesthetic, aerobic and anaerobic culture with sensitivities, antibiotics, pain medicines, and dietary advice are all part of treatment.

  1. Diarrhea:

Diarrhea that are watery or smeared are unusual, especially in the presence of broken insects. Leopard geckos frequently show signs of a healthy appetite and weight loss, but if remain unattended, they will cease eating.

  1. Ocular Problems:

So under eyes, solid cellular debris can create ulcers and bacterial infection, which may be linked to hypovitaminosis A. The solid debris is removed, the eyes are flushed, and broad-spectrum systemically and ocular antibiotics are used.

  1. Stomatitis:

It’s uncommon in leopard geckos, and it’s usually caused by an underlying hypovitaminosis A.

  1. Egg Retention:

Leopard geckos are known for being good layers, laying two eggs. A solitary egg necessitates radiography, and egg preservation necessitates a celiotomy.

  1. Intestinal Impactions:

Geckos kept on sand, fine jagged sand, or broken peanut shells are prone to this. Smooth gravel works well as a substrate as long as it’s big enough for them to eat. Calcium-rich sands should not be used as a substrate. Lethargy, straining to excrete, and anorexia are some of the clinical signs. Intestinal blockage could sometimes result in cloacal or colonic prolapse.

FAQs:

Q1- What are the symptoms or signs of bad health?

The signs of health issues include weight loss/decreased appetite, mucus in mouth/nose, swelling, retained shed on toes, lethargy, bumps, sores/abrasions on the skin, labored breathing, paralysis of limbs, and abnormal feces.

Q2- List some Leopard Gecko health tips?

More than typical concealment, reducing one’s intake of food or liquids; even counting calories, joint swelling, anomalies of the eyes, nose, or mouth, skin discoloration and visible shedding, runny or unusual diarrhea for longer than two days, for longer time frames, there is an absence of excretions.

Q3- What is the size of a full-grown leopard gecko?

Adults normally measure 16.5-20 cm (6.5-8 inches) in length. Male geckos weigh between 60 and 90 grams when mature. Females can weigh as little as 45 grams. Leopard geckos weigh 6-8 grams at birth.

Q4- Are leopard geckos ideal as pets?

Leopard geckos, as you’ve probably guessed, are excellent pets. They’re undoubtedly the greatest pet reptile for novices (the one and only real competitors being crested geckos and bearded dragons), and even expert caretakers will typically find them fairly entertaining to maintain.

Q5- do leopard geckos pee?
Leopard geckos do pee but they do not urinate like humans and other animals. Leopard geckos pass out urine in a salt like shape that is called as urates. At most times geckos pass urates when they need to poop but you may find urates (white colored form) some other time. 

Conclusion: 

Leopard geckos are excellent starter pets for anybody interested in keeping a reptile. These little lizards seldom grow over than 10 inches long and so can be tamed with appropriate handling. The minimum necessities for a nice home are a 10-gallon tank with a heater space, lights, a hideout box, and emergency supplies dishes.  These reptiles are reclusive; they are more active at dawn than during the day. Leopard geckos must eat live prey such as fireflies.  Sprinkling their diet with a nutrient, multivitamin medication on a regular basis ensures that your pet is getting the right nourishment. Once you’re willing to venture into the world of live lizards, get a pet leopard gecko and its accoutrements. In comparison to most of the other renowned reptilian pets, it is typically rather simple to do so with a leopard gecko.

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