The Pixie frog is the second-largest frog in the world and the most endangered amphibian in sub-Saharan Africa.
Girls have beige below, whereas men have a yellow or orange stomach and throat.
African bullfrogs depend on their prey to return closer to them after spending a considerable amount of time buried just beneath the surface of the ground.
They can build a skin cocoon to assist keep moisture during hibernation. They are sedentary throughout the dry season. Estivation is what that is.
Around the start of the wet season, when they reproduce and are most active, they frequently awaken.
The term “Pixie frog” refers to a species of frog in the Pyxicephalidae family called the African bullfrog. In sub-Saharan Africa, the wide grasslands are frequently chosen as the Pixie frog’s natural habitats.
In the dry season of the grasslands, temperatures can rise properly over 100 stages and without issue drop quickly to below freezing at some point. As a result, the Pixie frog will hibernate for up to 10 months below the surface of the ground.
The Pixie frogs will emerge from their dormancy during the rainy season and congregate in sporadic ephemeral ponds and temporary flood plains.
The male Pixie frogs will then congregate in establishments where women are to be found. The larger male frogs will catch the strongest females. With a name to the viable female that lasts about a second and sounds like a deep, low-pitched whoop, the larger male Pixie frog makes sure he gets selected.
The female Pixie frog will quickly deposit between 3000 and 4000 eggs in shallow water for the male frog to fertilise. The male Pixie frog will remain with and protect his babies, which is unusual in the world of amphibians. Hatched tadpoles would eat small fish, insects, and even each other in the area under his observation. This watch will be maintained by the male African bullfrog until the tadpoles emerge.
metamorphose inside approximately 3 weeks and venture off on their own.
Although the African bullfrog may consume almost anything, birds are their main predator.
Overview of the pixie frog.
|Name||Ixie frog, African bullfrog|
|Scientific name||pyxicephalus adspersus|
|size||5.5 to 10 feet long|
|color||Muddy green and brown.|
|Conservational status||Least concern.|
Bulky frogs are Pixie Frogs.
They are far bigger than a typical pond frog and have enormous heads and lips.
Since they are no longer pond frogs, they have little to no webbing on their feet. Alternately, the internal ft on the back legs of these animals have a sharp callus that is useful for digging.
Pixie frogs are consistently an olive green tint with a yellow or cream throat colour.
The necks of males are a brilliant yellow colour, while those of females are cream.
Men can grow to be nine inches long and as heavy as three pounds. Girls weigh one pound and are half as long as men.
Males and females may be clearly distinguished since they can differ in size by up to a factor of ten.
Tadpoles can fully develop by the time they reach adulthood and are several inches long.
Size and weight.
Character The largest pixie frogs are found in the southernmost portion of their range, with males reaching lengths of up to ten inches “and weighing as much as two kilogrammes! Females typically fall under five inches in height and are significantly smaller “in length.
When given various nutritional supplements and prevented from gaining weight, a lifetime of 15 years or longer is not out of the ordinary.
Males average 8 to 10 inches in height.
Ladies From 4 to 6 inches long
Size: 2 to 4 lbs.
Life expectancy: 20 to 40 years in
Origin and habitat.
Pixie frogs are indigenous to Africa, where they live alone and spend the most of their time underground.
They will therefore need a substrate that exhibits this activity. Paper towels, Eco-Earth, fertilizer-loose, organic potting soil, and even fertiliser are all acceptable substitutes. The substrate must be damp but not wet for you to live there.
Pixies thrive in damp environments. For best results, we advise keeping the enclosure at about 80% humidity.
Daily spraying of the substrate will assist maintain the proper range of moisture levels. We sprinkle the substrate, the tank’s glass partitions, and occasionally even the frogs themselves with water from a spritzer bottle.
Additionally, it makes sense to spend money on a sturdy water dish that is big and shallow. You can watch your pixie drink the water, but it also allows you to control humidity levels and gives your pixie the option of taking a bath if it so chooses.
LEAST CONCERN according to the IUCN.
Lifespan of Pixie Frog
When given the proper care, pixie frogs can have long, healthy lives. Although they typically live about 20 years, some have been known to survive for 45 years.
Due to their constant appetite, weight problems are one of their most common health problems. You must feed them mostly according to a weight-loss strategy or agenda.
To plan their meal intake, you must keep tabs on their weight and physical health. Your frog needs to grow until they reach adulthood, at which point their weight should be fairly consistent.
Internal parasites in this species can cause a distinct type of health issue.
Without difficulty, parasites can be avoided by keeping their enclosure warm. The absence of appetite in your frog is a sign of parasites, fungal illnesses, or bacterial infections.
Is Pixie frog Poisonous?
Although most African Pixie Frogs are not deadly, some can be aggressive and make for an unpleasant chew. When dealing with a hostile frog, you must exercise caution because they will be eager to jump.
If they had been with their owner since they were very young, some of them are social and can put up with people.
They might make an excellent pet for those just learning how to take care of frogs, but be careful when touching them.
It is imperative to wash your hands both before and after handling because they have been found to harbour Brucella bacteria.
Being nocturnal, they are dormant during the day. After a lot of rain, they’ll just reach the ground.
This type of frog could be fiercely possessive and aggressive. They won’t put up with their adversaries. Adult males frequently battle over their friends at some point throughout the breeding process.
You must be aware of which aggressive animals should not live together. Even without a lady’s presence or permission, a frog can fight.
They become aggressive by
- developing a snort that can occasionally resemble an underwater whistle.
- Jumping in all directions while keeping my mouth open.
- They must position their opponent on its back after throwing them into the air.
- Take hold of the opponent’s back legs.
Pixie frog breeding.
When the rain starts, pixie frogs rush out of their burrows to establish breeding grounds.
Men begin their deep mating cries as soon as the territory is connected. Women are drawn to adult males since they are the most important people. The female can produce up to 4000 eggs.
The male protects the eggs from predators and keeps them moist until they hatch two days later.
Tadpoles spend 19 days developing into little frogs.
In three years, you become an adult.
Role in the food chain and cause of species decline.
People who live near African bullfrogs occasionally eat them and describe the meat as being a delicacy.
Other than people, predators include birds of prey with talons or beaks big enough to snag adults and display screen lizards with razor-sharp beaks that snag juveniles and swallow them.
The biggest threat to frogs is habitat loss, but they have developed adaptations that enable them to survive in a variety of conditions, from scorching deserts to overgrown velds where wintertime lows can reach minus 40 degrees.
Facts about pixie frogs.
- The big, olive-colored Pixie Frogs can be found throughout southern Africa. From Gauteng in South Africa all the way up into Angola and Kenya in the north, they stay there.
- There are a few subtropical grasslands in this area, but the climate can be extremely arid.
- Pixie frogs spend the most of their time underground, burrowing in a cocoon formed of layers of their own skin. The heat in their native environment is to blame for this. They remain in a state of reduced activity (i.e., torpor) for the majority of the year and only descend to the ground sometimes during times of intense rain.
- Herpetologists believe that those large frogs can eat just about everything. With a diet that includes mice in general, as well as other small creatures like lizards and young snakes, they are highly carnivorous. They will occasionally eat plant fibre.
- They’ll spend their time lounging in a corner of the tank, which is how they usually behave. They may be social at times each week and enjoy being held. They can survive in a 20-gallon aquarium with warm temperatures and incredibly high humidity levels. Paintings can be kept in a terrarium if you maintain excessive humidity.
Pixie frog Pet care guide.
The majority of the year is spent underground by pixie frogs, who live in dry, arid areas.
After very heavy rain, which sporadically occurs just once a year in Southern Africa, they emerge from their hiding places.
Because this species enjoys heavy rain, their captivity’s environment tries to mimic it.
For land animals that also like to soak in water, adult tanks must be put up.
Aside from mating couples, I think it’s vastly superior to house the ravenous (and occasionally cannibalistic) frogs.
Juveniles and small girls can be housed in five-gallon aquariums or 10-gallon aquariums, counting on how big your frog is.
A large grownup adult male will want huge cages, and a 20-gallon lengthy needs to be proper enough for a grownup male.
Younger and smaller frogs may be housed in plastic Critter Keepers, flat houses, or especially designed breeding boxes, but take into account that plastic boxes no longer keep warm in addition to glass cages.
If you live in a less warm climate, a pitcher cage may be more appropriate depending on your state of affairs.
Maximum keepers of Pixie frogs agree that coconut fiber is the right bedding, in that it holds moisture well, consists of their need to burrow and dig, and has the bottom viable risk of impaction. further, Sphagnum Moss can be brought to the enclosure to assist meet humidity desires, and offer a more visible hobby in the cage.
- Line the bottom of the terrarium with 2 to a few inches of coconut fiber or bark bedding — frogs experience burrowing in it. Scoop the poop at a minimum once every week and exchange out the bedding completely once a month.
- Offer a massive, shallow bowl of water on your pixie frog to soak in; or push the bedding to 1 aspect of the terrarium and let it slope down right into a water area. (They’ll get their private non-public seashore!)
- Stock the terrarium with live or synthetic branches for hiding and climbing.
While pixie frogs are pretty sedentary, they will nevertheless be able to feel exposed and insecure in a terrarium with nothing in it except substrate.
Décor options for pixie frogs consist of
- Leaf muddle
- Seed pods
- Cork bark
- artificial plant life
- Misc. adorns
Something you pick out to use, make sure that the frog has a cover to cover in so it can enjoy at ease in its environment.
Temperature and humidity.
Their tank has to be stored above room temperature at 75 ℉ via the use of a beneath tank heater.
By spraying the tank daily and filling the showering bowl daily, you can maintain the humidity level, which should be between 70% and 80%. A humidity gauge must be kept within the tank.
They no longer desire a place to hide or a place to bask.
They should have a large bathing bowl with water that is approximately an inch or two deep in addition to their eating bowl. In addition to providing a place for them to wash and urinate, this bowl prevents excessive humidity.
Coming from Africa, the one frogs thrive in temperatures barely warmer than room temperature, that is in the mid to immoderate 70s or maybe low 80s.
This will be carried out with thru use of a low wattage pink warmness bulb, or thru an underneath tank heater of the nice period.
Due to the truth heat bulbs can often dry out the air and substrate, using warmness pads is lots desired for those frogs.
At the same time as there can be few conclusive facts about the advantage of UVB lighting for frogs which encompass African Bullfrogs, in an enclosure taller than 6″ the usage of a 5.0 fluorescent tube can be beneficial to assist the frog in processing calcium and exclusive nutrients.
Nutrition and diet.
The feeding of Pixie frogs is in reality a part of the enchantment of retaining them as terrarium pets. However, indiscriminate feeding of huge, beside-the-point prey items can and could take a toll on your frog’s fitness.
The amazing diet for a Pixie Frog is a varied one. A feeding regime that includes correctly sized crickets, mealworms, super worms, waxworms, silkworms, and hornworms, in addition to several species of roaches, needs to make up a bulk of the food regimen.
larger and older frogs can be provided with rodents from time to time, but the ones need to be constrained to prevent your frog from turning overweight.
While chasing your frogs, all insects need to be dusted in a top-notch supplemental powder, each an entire calcium, D3, and multivitamin combo, or create your very very own complement regime with calcium and D3 and a multivitamin approximately some instances per week.
Everyday dusting is most critical for young, fast-developing frogs – older animals which might be in the course of adult length need supplements much less often.
further to live prey objects, if you could educate your frog to feed off of tongs, you may moreover upload several canned insects to the weight loss program of your frog.
This consists of caterpillars, grasshoppers, and snails. In addition, if the feeding of live insects is simply too unpalatable for you, canned crickets and canned worms are available, so that you can preserve a spread to your pet.
Pixie Frogs can consume almost any animal that is nearly the same length as themselves. They most effectively eat flora whilst they may be hungry. they’re a wait-and-watch predator, meaning super worms every few days.
They may eat any meals they find.
- Other frogs
- Small birds
- Infant snakes
They mustn’t be choosy and seldom refuse meals.
Adults need to be fed at least two instances every week, with occasional snacks. To keep away from being bitten, forceps need to be used to feed your food.
Man or woman Pixie Frogs don’t have to get entry to business feed in order that they need to be fed a mixture of gut-loaded bugs and freshly thawed pinky mice. Some proprietors feed Purina trout chow.
Juveniles want to comply with the identical healthy eating plan as adults, but every day.
The very last food has to be spot-cleaned no later than hours after consumption.
Tadpoles devour the important aquatic flora, bugs, and algae. A business weight loss program can be fed to tadpoles.
Bullfrogs should have a smooth right of entry to consuming water, and separate bathing and sloughing regions. Every bowl wants to be modified on an everyday foundation.
When given the possibility, those frogs can spend a considerable amount of time in the water.
To address this, a water bowl ought to be provided that is large enough for the frog to sit in and soak if it so dreams.
A hand spray bottle ought to be used to mist the cage down as humidity booms.
A few keepers pick to deal with their frog’s water with water treatment to do away with chlorine and assist with the wreck down of ammonia and nitrate.
In case you are worried about your water quality, better safe than sorry! when given the opportunity, these frogs can spend a large amount of time in the water.
To accommodate this, a water bowl needs to be provided that is big enough for the frog to take a seat down in and soak if it so desires.
A hand spray bottle has to be used to mist the cage down as humidity. Some keepers pick out to address their frog’s water with water treatment to eliminate chlorine and help harm down ammonia and nitrate.
In case you are worried about your water being amazing, higher security than sorry!
Diseases in Pixie Frog
Amphibian nutritional Metabolic Bone sickness (NMBD)
Extra effectively is referred to as nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism; this condition is impacted by a trio of vitamin D3, calcium, and UV light shortages. In captive amphibians, it is second only to hunger or malnutrition in terms of danger.
The most common sign of acute NMBD in amphibians is spastic tetany during vigorous locomotion.
If left untreated, this could progress to more serious systemic changes, including spinal deformities, angular limb deformities, and bowed mandibles that give the animal a gruesome “smile” appearance. These include hydra coeloms (coelomic hollow spaces packed with fluid) from gastrointestinal stasis (regular calcium that is required for regular intestinal motility and digestion).
This White tree frog developed NMBD. Note the horribly misaligned jaw and the deformed thigh bones (yellow arrows).
Treatment for NMBD can be effective when it is detected in time. Commonly, this entails tending to the patient’s medicinal needs while also addressing the underlying husbandry deficits (lighting fixtures, temperature, humidity, weight loss programme, and many others).
Systemic calcium supplementation is required for animals exhibiting tetany’s signs and symptoms. Animals who aren’t as afflicted will benefit from oral supplementation with vitamin D3 and calcium. Additionally, choosing the NMBD could take weeks or months. Even after all flaws have been fixed, an animal may still have permanent disfigurements for the duration of its life.
Amphibian Hypovitaminosis A
The most common end outcome of a poor diet is weight loss Quick tongue syndrome, initially identified in the Wyoming toad, is a disorder in the diet (Anaxyrus [Bufo] baxteri). Low vitamin A levels lead to a condition known as squamous metaplasia, which prevents the animal from producing the proper amount of sticky mucus on the tongue. When a toad or frog tries to understand its prey, the prey slips off the tongue since it is so far back in the mouth.
Along with the kidneys and the bladder, hypovitaminosis A can also result in swelling of the conjunctiva across the eyes, similar to the effects on the tongue (inflicting hydra coelom).
Treatment entails addressing issues that pose a harm to one’s way of life, adding vitamins A, and addressing any underlying causes or changes to one’s diet.
Amphibian weight issues
Remain seated and wait Even when overfed, predators like the horned or man frog can gain weight in captivity. Although the long-term repercussions of weight problems in amphibians have not been researched, it can be hypothesised that adverse effects may manifest, similar to those in other species.
Distant places frame Ingestion
Amphibians are ready to strike and consume targets the moment they notice movement. A frog may unintentionally ingest foreign objects (such gravel or small rocks) if it misses its target and adheres to a cage object because of its tongue’s natural stickiness.
Not all animals have the ability to spit the rocks back up, however some do.
Rocks are frequently found in the stomachs of larger, agressive frogs like the man frog. The objects in the stomach may need to be surgically removed, or they may need to be removed using forceps or an endoscope.
On this X-ray, a few stones can be seen in the frog’s stomach. Surgery was performed to remove them, and the affected frog did excellently.
Frog Gastric Overload.
Gastric overflow or impaction is a term that refers to a variety of feeding-related issues (GOI).
This happens when an amphibian is given an excessively large meal or excessive amounts of food in a short period of time. Some anurans may also regurgitate excessive amounts of food, but not all of them do.
Overstuffed, bloated stomachs can strain the lungs, making it challenging for the animal to breathe.
More significantly, a large meal may not be adequately digested, leading to bacterial overgrowth, illness, and most likely death.
Intervention is part of the treatment, which can range from stomach washings to inserting a forceps or an endoscope into the stomach and removing food items. Surgery can be required in extreme circumstances. In some situations, using antibiotics and gastric protectants may be necessary.
Amphibian Corneal Lipidosis
This condition results in whitish plaques on the cornea from the accumulation of LDL cholesterol deposits. It is generally accepted that the cause is high blood cholesterol levels, which may be the result of excessively fattening meals. The cure is mostly ineffective, but food changes can help stop the situation from getting worse.
A tomato frog’s lipidosis of the cornea.
Gout is a condition where uric acid crystals accumulate throughout an amphibian’s body. Numerous reasons, such as an excessive amount of purines in the diet, dehydration, an infection, and kidney failure, may be to blame.
The crystals can take the form of little stones in the bladder as well as larger ones in the liver and kidneys, which are mild tissues. By the time it is discovered, its mileage are frequently too high. If the amphibian is in in good health, bladder stones are effortlessly evacuated.
Diseases that human can catch from Pixie Frog.
There are some diseases that humans may catch from these frogs and they are :
Amphibians are prone to a wide range of viral diseases. The herpesvirus, which causes kidney cancers in leopard frogs, has been the subject of the most research. The virus damages the kidneys, resulting in hydrops and hydra coelom. Following spawning, the animals begin to lose weight and eventually perish.
Iridoviruses, particularly ranaviruses, have been the focus of a lot of investigations in recent years. In wild populations, the viruses are to blame for die-offs.
Although little is known about amphibian viruses, more is being discovered as a result of the growing interest in disorder in both captive and wild specimens.
Bacteria typically reside inside the bodies of amphibians. Although Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Proteus, and E. Coli are all thought of as typical plant life, if the animal is immunosuppressed due to underlying disease (such as iridovirus) or husbandry conditions (such as crowding), those commensals might emerge as opportunistic pathogens and cause illness.
Aeromonas hydrophila is frequently linked to the classic form of purple-leg disease, also referred to as dermato septicemia.
In truth, dermato septicemia symptoms can be brought on by a wide variety of pathogens (microorganisms, fungi, and viruses).
The associated medical symptoms frequently manifest suddenly and are fatal. The pale regions of the legs develop a purple flush due to changes in the skin’s capillaries. Red skin and subcutaneous haemorrhages could result from this. When this appears, death is typically on the way.
Treatment should target the bacterially caused septicemia as soon as possible and should also include a chytrid fungus adjunctive treatment.
Fluids, antibiotics, and antifungals are typically necessary. Despite quick, vigorous treatment, death is still very likely.
The fungus that causes chytridiomycosis, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, is the most well-known among amphibians. B. Dendrobatidis can infect healthy colonies and the wild, but most fungal infections are often seen in immunosuppressed amphibians.
clinical indications and indicators B. Dendrobatidis symptoms range from a startling absence of existence without symptoms to a slow onset, with stomach reddening (similar to dermato septicemia), lethargy and profuse pores, and skin lowering. Early detection and effective therapy are possible.
It has been established that a variety of unusual fungus species can cause disease in amphibians as well.
Aquatic amphibians with saprolegniasis develop cotton-like growths on their skin and in their mouths.
Numerous amphibians have been shown to have chromomycosis, a pigmented fungus that causes light-tan to dark-gray nodules on the skin and pores and pores and skin. Lack of therapy may lead to a sedentary lifestyle.
Correcting the inadequacies is essential for effective treatment and the prevention of future illness because the majority of fungal illnesses are caused by stress and adverse environmental circumstances.
Numerous parasites, including protozoa, nematodes, trematodes, and cestodes, are found on amphibians.
Entamoeba ranarum and amoebiasis are frequent but treatable conditions if detected early.
Nematodes, often known as roundworms, are the most prevalent parasites found in amphibians.
Small populations of the lungworm, or Rhabdia, can be found in wild animals, and the combination of captivity and stress can result in severe burdens and mortality. It is spreadable to unique amphibians, thus afflicted animals need to be isolated and kept separate until they can be treated.
Amphibians are susceptible to neoplasia, which includes most malignancies and tumours, just like other recognisable animals. The most typical malignancies are those of the liver, kidneys, skin, gonads, and pores and skin. Some conventional symbols feature hydras (coelomic hollow area complete with fluid). Analysis and therapy are different, although analysis is generally kept under wraps until the end.
Pixie frog handling
Amphibians are usually not very handleable, but as an extended way as frogs pass, pixie frogs are more tolerant of dealing with than maximum. However, coping stays demanding for them, so it’s brilliant not to handle them too regularly.
Whilst managing your frog, place on a couple of disposable gloves, maintain the frog’s body firmly but gently and don’t keep them out in their enclosure for too long. ensure to in no way drop them, as those frogs are heavy-bodied and may be seriously injured by a fall. Observe that pixie frogs have sharp enamel and a powerful chunk, so you may additionally want to put on thick gloves underneath your disposable gloves as a precaution in opposition to harm.
One exact manner to bond alongside your frog out of doors of handling is to offer food via tender-tipped feeding tweezers!
How to take care of baby Pixie frogs (tadpoles and juveniles)?
2-inch lengthy Tadpoles may be stored in their 20-gallon person tank, which is filled with water.
Metamorphosis happens within 20 days.
Your tadpoles need to have masses of water for swimming once they start to metamorphose into teenagers. They want to climb on a log or rock.
Even though they ought to eat every day, the weight loss program and husbandry needs of juveniles want to live the same.
The commonplace name Giant Pixie Frog
Clinical call Pyxicephalus adspersus
Charge $25 to $ seventy-five
Period Nine inches
Lifespan 20-forty five years
Diet Intestine-loaded insects, pinky mice, and
Tank length 20-gallon
Humidity and Temperature Daylight temperature: 75
Humidity: 70% – 80%
Well-known options Pacman Frog Leopard Frog, White’s Tree Frog
Pixie frog cost.
Juveniles may be sold for $25-$75, depending on which breeder you choose. because wild-stuck frogs are all at once disappearing, it’s miles better to buy from a breeder than a pet shop.
Many breeders improve tadpoles from the time they’re younger and then promote them.
Search for a frog with smooth eyes and inexperienced pores and pores and skin.
It is legal to keep a pixie frog as a pet, yet sometimes your state may require you a license and give you special training before letting you get a pet frog.
In Australia, a license is required before getting a pet pixie frog.
In California, you are not allowed to keep frogs as pets however, you may ask the pet shopkeeper about this.
Pixie frogs are Africa’s largest and rank as the sector’s 2nd-largest frog.
They will be well recognized because of their massive size.
They might live up to a lifespan from approximately 20 to 45 years. Pixie housing tadpoles and juveniles range about 1.5 to 5 inches in the period.
Pixie frog pets are demonstrated to be distinctive all over the world. They breed often in moist seasons as they arrive out in their hidden underground places only at some stage in heavy rain.
Furthermore, they pick out to stay in a dry as well as a moist habitat. They’ve got sharp teeth like projections that make their chunk painful. They consume an expansion of food from worms and little bugs to mice and often small snakes. Pixie frog for sale is present to be had in complete Southern Africa and the whole global.
Pixie Frogs, a completely particular pet that is straightforward to care for, have quickly received a reputation.
The frogs make extraordinary novice frogs and are superb for anyone in search of to get a huge, specific amphibian for you to consume almost everything you give it.
If you are searching out a smaller, more social frog that may be dealt with higher and is easier to deal with, White’s tree frogs or Pacman frogs are probably the first-rate desire.
If you assume the Pixie Frog is the right frog, then start getting ready to supply home a truly massive pet reptile.
Male Pixie frogs may grow to be five and a half to ten inches long and weigh up to two pounds. Female Pixie Frogs, on the other hand, reach a maximum size of three and a half to five and a half inches and weigh less than one pound. This is the average size and weight your frog might be a bit less or more than this.
The average cost of a pixie frog is 25 to 75 dollars, but once again the price may vary depending on what area and country you live in.
Pixie frogs may be intriguing pets if you have some expertise and understand what you’re getting into. Pixie frogs may be intriguing pets if you have some expertise and understand what you’re getting into.
Although African Pixie Frogs are not toxic, some of them can be aggressive and inflict a painful bite. You should use caution while handling a hostile frog since it will be anxious to leap. If you do not touch this frog frequently, it will pose no threat or injury.